Stages of Production at the Puma Unit
PULP PRODUCTION FLOW
RECEIPT OF WOOD
The unit receives pine and eucalyptus logs, which arrive at the Wood Yard by trucks.
PREPARATION OF WOOD
At Klabin, the wood logs with barks are transported to the plant, where they are barked and chopped to form piles of woodchips. The bark that is removed in the barking process is sent for crushing and stored in the biomass silo. It is then used to feed the power boiler.
White liquor is added to the woodchips, which are cooked at high temperatures in the digester, after which the pulp is washed, delignified (process of extending the cooking process using caustic soda and oxygen) and purified, when the uncooked woodchips are separated from the pulp. The black liquor obtained from cooking eucalyptus and pine, which contains lignin and other extractives, as well as reacted white liquor, follows in a single flow to the recovery process.
For the eucalyptus line – The hardwood pulp (eucalyptus) is bleached in a chemical process consisting of three stages.
For the pine line – The softwood pulp (pine) is bleached in four stages due to the higher resistance of the fiber to chemical reaction.
For the eucalyptus line – After being dried, the hardwood pulp is transformed into bales.
For the pine line – After being dried, the softwood pulp can be transformed into bales or fluff pulp rolls.
The hardwood and softwood pulp bales and fluff pulp rolls are packed and sent to inventory and dispatch, from where there shipped by road to local clients and by railroad to the Port of Paranaguá for export.
THE RECOVERY PROCESS FLOW
The black liquor generated during the cooking of hardwood pulp (eucalyptus) and softwood pulp (pine) is evaporated to a concentration of 80% solids.
BURNING (two boilers: recovery and biomass)
The black liquor is burned in the recovery boiler. The organic portion of black liquor that burns, generates steams, which feeds the process and also transforms into electricity in the turbogenerators. The inorganic portion (smelt) proceeds to the causticization process to generate white liquor once again for the digester. Wooden pieces and barks not used to produce pulp after the wood preparation stage are burnt in the biomass boiler, which produces steam to generate energy in the same turbogenerators.
CAUSTICIZATION AND LIME KILNS
This is the process of recovering smelt, which produces green liquor and regenerates white liquor, which then returns to the cooking stage of the pulp production process.
Electricity generation capacity is 270 MW, of which120MW will be used by Klabin and 150 MW will be supplied to Brazil’s Electricity System.